Read the Passage and Answer the Questions

Students should read the passage carefully and answer the questions. Read the passage several times if necessary. Try to answer in one or two sentences for short answers.

Be careful about what exactly the questions asked. Read the passage and answer the questions in your own words as far as possible.

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Read the Passage and Answer the Questions

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Read the Passage and Answer the Questions #1


I met a traveller from an antique land
Who said:—Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
Stand in the desert. Near them on the sand,
Half sunk, a shatter’d visage lies, whose frown
And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command
Tell that its sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamp’d on these lifeless things,
The hand that mock’d them and the heart that fed.
And on the pedestal these words appear:
“My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!”
Nothing beside remains: round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare,
The lone and level sands stretch far away.

Questions and Answers

What does the traveller from an antique land describe in the first stanza?

Answer: The traveller describes “two vast and trunkless legs of stone” standing in the desert, near which lies a shattered visage half-sunk in the sand.

What do the features of the shattered visage suggest about the sculpture’s subject?

Answer: The frown, wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command suggest that the subject of the sculpture was a powerful, proud ruler.

What do the words on the pedestal of the sculpture say?

Answer: The words on the pedestal read, “My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!”

What is the speaker’s tone towards the subject of the poem?

Answer: The speaker’s tone is one of irony and scepticism, as the once-mighty ruler’s grandiose claims have been reduced to a mere relic in the desert.

What is the significance of the final image of “the lone and level sands stretch[ing] far away”?

Answer: The final image underscores the fleeting nature of power and the inevitability of decay and oblivion, as even the grandest monuments eventually crumble and fade into the endless expanse of time.


Read the Passage and Answer the Questions #2


In these trying times, when buying ordinary foodstuff can burn a hole in our pockets, comes the news that can actually help us save some hard cash when we go out to shop the next time. According to a Stanford University study, a first of its kind in the world, there is no evidence to suggest that there are more nutritional benefits from expensive organic food than those grown by conventional methods.

The researchers add that there is no difference in protein and fat content between organic and conventional milk and the vitamin count is similar in both types. The only benefit is that organic foods are not contaminated with pesticides, but then, before you chew on that plate of organic okra with roti made from organic wheat, they are not 100% pesticide-free either.

In India, organic food has been growing at 20–22% and the export market is valued at `1,000 crores. Obviously, the study is not good news for that sector and for people who are big on organic food.

In India, eating organic food is more of a style statement than due to health worries because the stuff is expensive. But people can, do indulge in not only organic vegetables but even organic eggs laid by ‘happy hens’, who are allowed to roam around freely, whereas ‘unhappy hens’ are kept in coops.

Then some companies have installed music channels in their cowsheds and the milk from those sheds is sold at a marked-up price since it has more nutritional value because the animals are happy thanks to lilting 24 × 7 music. We don‘t know yet of any farmer using music to improve his crop quality, but then you never know: plants are known to respond to music.

Why such pickiness about food? These days, the huge number of TV shows and articles that we see and read on food provide bread and butter for specialists. But instead of decoding food, its sources, and what has gone into growing it, isn‘t it much better to enjoy what‘s on the plate?

Questions

(a)According to a Stanford University study, organic food in relation to conventional food is___________________.
i. less nutritious
ii. more nutritious
iii. very conventional
iv. as nutritious

(b) The study will not be welcomed by ______________.
i. farmers of conventional food
ii. makers of pesticides
iii. all sectors
iv. exporters of organic food

(c) We can save some hard cash by _____.
i. buying organic food
ii. not buying organic food
iii. going to the shop
iv. not buying food with pesticides

(d) Music channels are installed in the cowsheds because the _________.
i. cows give more milk
ii. milk is sold at a higher price
iii. milk becomes purer
iv. workers become happy

(e) In the second paragraph, the author‘s attitude to the people who eat food sourced from ‘happy’ animals is that he _____________.
i. is happy with them
ii. is unhappy with them
iii. is laughing at them
iv. wants crops to be grown similarly

(f) One benefit of organic food is that _______________.
i. it is fashionable to eat
ii. only rich people can afford it
iii. it is less contaminated with pesticides
iv. even poor people can afford it

 

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(g) The word ‘contaminated‘ means ______________.
i. adulterated
ii. for adults
iii. containing
iv. not healthy

Answers

a) as nutritious
b) exporters of organic food
c) not buying organic food
d) milk becomes purer
e) is laughing at them
f) it is less contaminated with pesticides
g) containing


Read the Passage and Answer the Questions #3


Kausani is situated at a height of 6,075 feet in the Central Himalayas. It is an unusually attractive little town. It covers just about 5.2 sq. km. It lies to the north of Almora in Uttarakhand‘s picturesque Kumaon region.

Kausani provides a 300-km wide breathtaking view of the Himalayas. It is the most striking aspect of this place. Snow-capped peaks are spread in a stately row. They stare at you in silvery-white majesty. The most famous peak on view is Nanda Devi, the second-highest mountain in India. It is situated at a height of 25,645 feet and 36 miles away as the crow flies.

The other famous peaks on view are Choukhamba (23,420 feet) and Trishul (23,360 feet). Then there are also Nilkhamba, Nandaghunti, Nandaghat, and Nanda Kot. On a clear day, the blue of the sky makes a splendid background to these peaks.

At sunrise and at sunset, when the colour changes to a golden orange, the scene gets etched in your memory. When Gandhiji visited this place in 1929, its scenic beauty held him spellbound. He named it the ‘Switzerland of India’. He prolonged his two-day stay to fourteen days, making time to write a book, ‘Anashakti Yoga’. The place where he was staying was originally a guest house of the tea estate. It was renamed ―Anashakti Ashram‘ after the book.

Kausani is the birthplace of Sumitranandan Pant, India‘s poet laureate. Its natural surrounding inspired many of his poems. Its tea gardens mingle with dense pine forests and fruit orchards. The area is also host to many fairs and religious ceremonies. If Uttaranchal is the abode of gods, Kausani is God‘s own backyard. There is no traffic, no one is in a hurry. If serenity could be put on a canvas, the picture would resemble Kausani.

Questions

Q1) Why, do you think, is Kausani known as ‘God’s own backyard’?
Q2) How did Kausani influence Sumitranandan Pant?
Q3) How can we say that Gandhiji was greatly charmed by the natural beauty of Kausani?
Q4) What is the most striking aspect of Kausani?
Q5) Find words from the passage which mean
a. splendid
b. acclaimed

Answers

A1) Kausani is known for its majestic beauty and serenity. The cool climate and the natural beauty of the surrounding give the place a divine feel; therefore, it is known as ‘God’s own backyard’.

A2) The natural surroundings of Kausani inspired Sumitranandan Pant to write poems.

A3) It is said that the beauty of the place left Gandhiji spellbound and it inspired him to name it the ‘Switzerland of India’. He also extended his stay from two days to fourteen days. Therefore, we can conclude that Gandhiji was greatly charmed by the natural beauty of Kausani.

A4) The 300-km wide breathtaking view of the Himalayas provided by Kausani is its most striking aspect.

A5)
a. breathtaking
b. laureate


Read the Passage and Answer the Questions #4


The first two years of life are a critical ‘window of opportunity.’ In this period, it is possible to prevent the largely irreversible damage which follows early childhood undernutrition. There are 805 million undernourished people in the world today. That means one in nine people does not get enough food to be healthy and lead an active life.

Hunger and malnutrition are in fact the number one risk to health worldwide—greater than AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis combined. Three-quarters of all hungry people live in rural areas, mainly in the villages of Asia and Africa. An estimated 146 million children in developing countries are underweight—the result of acute or chronic hunger. Poverty trap, lack of investment in agriculture, natural calamities, war and displacement, unstable markets, and food wastage are the major causes of the presence of hunger in the world. Hunger leads to malnutrition, which in turn causes diseases. Malnutrition is the largest single, According to the UN’s Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN), a contributor to disease in the world.

Malnutrition at an early age leads to reduced physical and mental development during childhood. According to the World Bank, India is one of the highest-ranking countries in the world for the number of children suffering from malnutrition. One of the major causes of malnutrition in India is gender inequality. Because of the low social status of Indian women, their diet often lacks in both quality and quantity. Women who suffer from malnutrition are less likely to have healthy babies. In India, mothers generally lack proper knowledge of feeding children. Consequently, newborn infants are unable to get an adequate amount of nutrition from their mothers.

Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, and Bihar have very high rates of undernutrition. Studies show that individuals belonging to Hindu, Jain, or Muslim backgrounds in India tend to be more malnourished than those from Sikh or Christian backgrounds. The Akshaya Patra Foundation runs the world’s largest NGO-run midday meal program serving freshly cooked meals to over 1.3 million schoolchildren in government and government-aided schools in India. However, the challenge for all these programs and schemes is how to increase efficiency, impact, and coverage.

Questions

Q1) What are the causes of the presence of hunger in the world?
Q2) How does gender inequality lead to malnutrition in India?
Q3) What role does the Akshay Patra foundation play?
Q4) Where are the majority of the hungry people inhabited?
Q5) Which religious communities in India tend to be less malnourished?

Answers

A1) Poverty trap, lack of investment in agriculture, natural calamities, war and displacement, unstable markets, and food wastage are the major causes of the presence of hunger in the world.

A2) Women in India have low status because their diet often lacks quality and quantity. This causes them to suffer malnutrition.

A3) The Akshaya Patra Foundation runs the world’s largest NGO-run midday meal program serving freshly cooked meals to over 1.3 million schoolchildren in government and government-aided schools in India.

A4) Three-quarters of all hungry people live in rural areas, mainly in the villages of Asia and Africa.

A5) According to studies, individuals belonging to the Sikh or Christian communities are less malnourished than those from Hindu, Jain, or Muslim backgrounds.


Read the Passage and Answer the Questions #5


My teenybopper has a phone;
She really never is alone.
It beeps and jitters day and night,
Emitting tiny bluish light.

Her ringtone is the latest rage,
As other preteens text and page.
One-liner messages appear
That makes her grin from ear to ear.

The latest crisis, who likes whom,
The rock star with the best perfume;
Such weighty matters cause her thrill
And elevate our monthly bill.

And yet, the silver lining glows,
For we have never come to blows.
I never have to raise my voice,
Because I have a high-tech choice.

If school assignments pile sky-high,
I exhale with a weighty sigh.
Like every modern mom who cares,
I simply telephone upstairs.

When chores demand her energies,
I simply text her, asking ―Please!
No alibis or missing words,
Because it‘s clear that she has heard.

And if my daughter goes outside
To visit friends, both far and wide,
Her curfew‘s easy to enforce
With her new cellular resource.

This beeping tether holds her close,
While helping her feel grandiose.
If separation e‘er occurs,
My speed dial links my heart to hers.

Our handy cell phones help us out.
Convenient, easy, with no doubt.
Yes, certainly, they have their place.
But can‘t we talk once, face to face?

Questions

Q1) Why is the speaker‘s daughter never alone?
Q2) How does the speaker make sure that the assignments are completed?
Q3) Why can‘t the daughter make any excuse when she is asked for help by her mother?
Q4) How do you think cell phones have affected face-to-face communication?
Q5) Identify the figure of speech If school assignments pile sky-high.

Answers

A1) The speaker‘s daughter is never alone because she always has a phone with her which keeps beeping, vibrating, and emitting light all the time.

A2) The speaker is the mother of the ‘teenybopper’ and uses the cell phone to her advantage. Whenever her daughter‘s schoolwork is pending, the speaker doesn‘t hesitate to call her even if they are in the same house and ask her to complete the tasks.

A3) The mother smartly texts the daughter about the help needed on her cell phone. In this way, the daughter cannot make an excuse that she didn‘t hear her mother because everything is clearly written in the message.

A4) Cell phones are no doubt convenient and easy, but they do not show you the actual feelings of a person talking or texting. Thus, when we use cell phones to communicate, we might not be aware of the person‘s actual state of mind, which might make communication ineffective.

A5) Hyperbole

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Read the Passage and Answer the Questions #6


It is important that you recognize the signs of stress in your behaviour, and be healthy enough to enjoy your success. Stress can strike anytime, in a fashion that may leave you unaware of its presence in your life. While a certain amount of pressure is necessary for performance, it is important to be able to recognize your individual threshold. For instance, some individuals accept competition healthily. Others collapse into weeping wrecks before an exam or compare mark sheets and find that their mates have scored better.

Whenever there is a change in the external environment such as temperature, pollutants, humidity, and working conditions, it leads to stress. In these days of competition, when a person makes up his mind to surpass what others have achieved, leading to an imbalance between demands and resources causes psycho-social stress. It is a part and parcel of everyday life.

Stress has a different meaning depending on the stage of life you’re in. The loss of a toy or a reprimand from the parents might create a stress shock in a child. An adolescent who fails an examination may feel as if everything has been lost and life has no further meaning. In an adult, the loss of a companion, job, or professional failure may appear as if there is nothing more to be achieved.

Stress can be seen in the attitude and behaviour of the individual, such as muscle tension in various parts of the body, palpitation and high blood pressure, indigestion and hyperacidity, and ultimately in self-destructive behaviour such as eating and drinking too much, smoking excessively, relying on tranquillizers, trembling, shaking, nervous blinking, dryness of throat and mouth and difficulty in swallowing. The professional under stress behaves as if he is a perfectionist followed by depression, lethargy, and weakness for further work. Periodic mood shifts also indicate the stress status of students, executives, and professionals.

Questions

Q1) How do individuals handle the competition?
Q2) How does the external environment cause stress?
Q3) Does the age of a person have any impact on stress levels?
Q4) Find words from the passage which mean:
a. contaminant
b. sedative

Answers

A1) Different people deal with competition differently. Some people healthily accept competition. However, others collapse under the pressure of competition.

A2) A change in the external environment such as temperature, pollutants, humidity, and working conditions leads to stress.

A3) An individual experiences stress for different reasons according to his age. The loss of a toy or a reprimand from parents might create a stress shock in a child. An adolescent who fails an examination may feel as if everything has been lost and life has no further meaning. In an adult, the loss of a companion, job, or professional failure may appear as if there is nothing more to be achieved.

A4)
a. pollutant
b. tranquillizers


Read the Passage and Answer the Questions #7


Both alligators and crocodiles are members of the reptilian order Crocodylia. But the families they belong to, Alligatoridae and Crocodylidae respectively, differ. Often, when people use the word “crocodile” what they really mean is “crocodilian.” This term encompasses not just the common alligators and crocodiles you might already know, but also the lesser-known Gavialidae family that contains the lone gavial, or gharial. All told, there are 23 species of crocodilians.

As a group, crocodilians are pretty impressive animals: Their lineage goes back 240 million years, meaning they’ve outlived the dinosaurs by a good 65 million years. Ideally suited for life in water and on land, members of the order can swim up to 20 mph (32 kph) and run up to 11 mph (17.6 kph). They’re most at home in the water and can hold their breath for up to an hour. Eyes situated atop their heads enable them to keep a lookout for prey, while their powerful tails swiftly propel them through the water.

Crocodiles and alligators are top-notch hunters and will eat just about anything they can get their teeth on, from fish and turtles to monkeys and buffalo. With teeth specialized just for spearing, neither family even bothers to chew its food — they swallow large chunks or the entire animal whole.

As if that weren’t scary enough, crocodilians have incredibly powerful senses to detect their prey. Their eyesight above water is top-notch, and thanks to vertical pupils that can open up extra wide to let in additional light, they also have keen night vision. And even though you can’t see their ears, don’t be fooled — these small slits are sensitive enough to hear offspring calling from inside their eggs Even their sense of smell is highly developed due to special organs in their snouts.

Questions

Q1) Complete the following sentences.
a. Alligatoridae, Crocodylia, and Gavialidae are subgroups of the main group………………………….
b. The …………………….died 65 million years ago.

Q2) Describe the eating habits of crocodiles.

Q3) How sharp are the tears of crocodiles?

Q 4) Find words in the passage that mean
a. To drive or push something forward
b. The science of classification
c. Descent from the ancestors
d. Outstanding

Answers

A1)
a. Alligatoridae, Crocodylia, and Gavialidae are subgroups of the main group Crocodylidae.
b. The dinosaurs died 65 million years ago.

A2) Crocodiles are great hunters and can prey on just about anything they can get their teeth on. Whether it is fish or turtles, monkeys or buffaloes, crocodiles swallow large chunks or the entire animal whole since they have teeth specialized just for spearing.

A. 3) One may not be able to see their ears, but crocodile ears are sensitive enough to hear offspring calling from inside their eggs.
A 4)
a. Propel
b. Taxonomy
c. Lineage
d. Top-notch
e. Offspring


Read the Passage and Answer the Questions #8


“Mum!” I shouted. “Are you okay?” I saw her little tent shuddering in the gale and listened closely for her response. Her voice was almost casual, ―Oh, yes, I‘m fine” That‘s my mother. It was the first night of our cycling trip through the interior of Iceland—a region so remote and inhospitable that for centuries, according to legend, it was abandoned.

The weather was decidedly hurricane-like, but Mum wasn‘t concerned. Months ago, I told her about my plan to pedal across Iceland. “It will be really difficult,” I said. “The roads are unpaved and often washed out, and the wind is blowing constantly—sometimes so hard that it pushes you off the road.” There was silence for a moment. Then she asked, “Can I come?” “Sure,” I replied. “But like the rest of us, you have to train to do two 160 kilometres a day back-to-back” “Wow,”
she said, “I could never do that,” I had more faith in my mother‘s physical abilities than she did.

I‘d seen her raise six children and put in long hours doing physical labour on our small farm.

“Sure you can,” I told her, “Start tomorrow.” What really concerned me was what I perceived to be her frustrating humility: I thought her too self-deprecating about her attractiveness just because she had not completed college. I felt she underestimated her attractiveness just because she was not the type to wear make-up or fancy clothes. As I had grown into adulthood, the life I‘d chosen seemed light years away from Mum‘s quiet existence, still caring for her children and her children‘s children.

Sometimes, on a visit home, I‘d describe some recent trip I‘d taken, and her blue eyes would shine with interest. So, I couldn‘t help thinking this trek might revitalize Mum, who had started to slow down in her 50s. It might spice up what I
saw as her humdrum life. And it might be a boost to her tentative and retiring persona. Mum trained furiously, months in advance. As the trip roster was pared down to Mum, my good friend Allen and me, she stood as the most dedicated. Soon she was riding 80–100 kilometres per day and was as strong a rider as Allen or I.

Questions

Q1) Based on your reading of the passage, complete the following sentences.
a. The narrator describes the roads across Iceland as ……………………………….
b. The narrator had faith in his mother‘s physical abilities as ………………………………………
c. The training to take the adventure trip on cycle included …………………………
d. In his adulthood, the narrator realized that his life was …………………………
e. Descriptions of his trips always ………………………
f. The narrator was sure that the trip would ………………………….
g. The narrator and his friend were sure about Mum‘s preparation when ………………………..

Q2) Find words from the passage that mean the same as the following.
a. noticed/become aware of
b. to give new life
c. hesitant/not certain

Answers

A1)
a. The roads in Iceland were unpaved and washed out according to the author.
b. The narrator had seen her bring up six children and carry out physical labour on the farm he grew up in.
c. The training included back-to-back cycling for 160 kilometres every day.
d. The narrator‘s life was different from his mother‘s quiet existence.
e. Around the interest of the narrator’s mother.
f. Revitalise the narrator’s mother’s life which according to him was quiet and different from his. It would
spice up her life and deliver her from her humdrum existence.
g. When she started riding 80–100 kilometres a day and proved to be as good as the narrator and his friend.

A2)
a. Perceived
b. Revitalize
c. Retiring


Read the Passage and Answer the Questions #9


About a hundred years ago, whenever an operation was performed, the patient would cry out in agony because he felt the surgeon cut his flesh. But now serious operations are performed without pain, and thousands of lives are saved. James Simpson was the first to discover and use the pain-killing power of chloroform. James was born into a poor family. So in his childhood, he not only helped his father on holidays but also helped the village doctor.

But he was horrified by the dire suffering of the people who came to the hospital for treatment. He now made it his life’s mission to find new inventions that would prevent so much pain. Simpson did many experiments and finally discovered chloroform. Now the patient is not afraid of the operation.

Questions and Answers

(a) Who discovered the pain-killing power of chloroform?

James Simpson.

(b) What was James Simpson’s childhood like?

He was born into a poor family and helped his father and the village doctor.

(c) What motivated James Simpson to find new inventions to prevent the pain?

He was horrified by the suffering of people who came to the hospital for treatment.

(d) What did James Simpson finally discover?

Chloroform.

(e) How did the discovery of chloroform impact surgery?

Serious operations could be performed without pain, saving thousands of lives.


Read the Passage and Answer the Questions #10


After dinner, my friends in the neighbouring rooms in the hostel dropped in as usual for light talk. They were my colleagues. One was Rangappa who taught the boys philosophy, and the other was Gopal in the mathematics section. Gopal was sharp as a knife edge where mathematical matters were concerned, but poor fellow, he was very dumb and stupid in other matters. As a matter of fact, he paid little attention to anything else. We liked him because he was a genius, and in a vague manner, we understood that he was doing brilliant things in mathematics. Some day he hoped to contribute a paper on his subject which was going to revolutionize human thought and conceptions.

But God knew what it was all about. All that I cared for in him was that he was an agreeable friend, who never contradicted and who patiently listened for hours, though without showing any sign of understanding.

Tonight the talk was all about English spelling, and the conference we had with Brown. I was incensed as usual, much to the amazement of Rangappa. “But my dear fellow, what do you think they pay you for unless it is for dotting the i’s and crossing the t’s?” Gopal, who had been listening without putting in a word of his own, suddenly became active.

“I don’t follow you,” he said.
“I said the English department existed solely for dotting the i’s and crossing the t’s.”
“Oh!” he said, opening wide his eyes. “I never thought so. Why should you do it?” His precise literal brain refused to move where it had no concrete facts or figures to grip. Symbols, if they entered his brain at all, entered only as mathematical symbols.

Rangappa answered: “Look here, Gopal. You have come across the expression ‘Raining cats and dogs’?”
“Yes.”
“Have you actually seen cats and dogs falling down from the sky?”
“No, no. Why?”

Rangappa would have worried him a little longer, but the college clock struck ten and I said:
“Friends, I must bid you good night.”
“Good night,” Gopal repeated mechanically and rose to go. [Source: R.K. Narayan’s The English Teacher]

Questions and Answers:

А. State whether the following sentences are True or False. Write T for True and ‘F’ for False.

Gopal was a genius in both mathematics and other areas of study.

False. Gopal was only a genius in mathematics and paid little attention to other matters.

The narrator and his friends liked Gopal because he always agreed with them.

True. The narrator says they liked Gopal because “he never contradicted” them.

The group’s discussion after dinner was about English literature.

False. The discussion was about English spelling and a conference with someone named Brown.

Gopal was able to understand figurative language and expressions easily.

False. Gopal had difficulty understanding expressions that were not concrete or mathematical in nature.

The group ended their conversation because it was getting too late.

True. The college clock struck ten, prompting the narrator to bid his friends good night.

Read the following questions and answers them:

Who were the two friends that visited the narrator after dinner?

Rangappa and Gopal.

What was Gopal’s area of expertise?

Mathematics.

How did the narrator and his friends view Gopal?

They liked him because he was a genius in mathematics, but didn’t pay much attention to anything else.

What was the topic of discussion during the visit?

English spelling and a conference with Brown.

Why did Gopal not understand Rangappa’s analogy about “dotting the i’s and crossing the t’s”?

ANSWER: Gopal’s literal brain only processed concrete facts and figures, and he had difficulty understanding symbols that were not mathematical.

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